LIND COULEE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE
National Register 1/21/1974
This important archaeological site was the first to demonstrate prehistoric occupation in Washington State prior to 4,000 years ago. Subsequent tests have shown that the site was occupied more than 10,000 years ago, with people repeatedly returning to the location over about a 150-year period. It remains one of the few early period sites to have been found and excavated in an upland as opposed to a riverine setting. Stone and bone artifacts offer evidence of man's hunting of now extinct megafauna such as giant buffalo and elk. The site was first excavated in 1950 and again in 1963. The Bureau of Reclamation curates the collections from Lind Coulee at Washington State University in Pullman, Washington.
MESA 36 ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE
Soap Lake vicinity
National Register 12/08/1978
The site, also known as 45-GR-145, consists of midden concentrations and housepit features located on a series of well-defined terraces on the sides and top of the mesa. The terraces are all accessed by a single narrow ledge that is lined with a nearly continuous “breastwork” or “barricade” of basalt boulders. Radiocarbon dates from one of the housepits indicate that the site was occupied around 1000 A.D. Mesa 36 is one of more than 50 mesa-top sites in the Columbia Basin that show evidence of prehistoric human occupation in association with stone features. Some interpret these stone features as defensive breastworks, and the mesa sites as defensible locations occupied during times of warfare. Mesa 36 and others are located in upland areas away from the Columbia River and its tributaries. When listed in 1978, the site was described as providing dramatic evidence of the potential archaeological significance of non-riverine areas within the Columbia Plateau. These potential defensive features and non-riverine settings make Mesa 36 and other Columbia Basin mesa sites significant for testing hypotheses related to the prehistoric settlement-subsistence of the basin.
CONCONULLY RESERVOIR AND DAM
On Salmon Creek, vicinity of Conconully
National Register 9/06/1974
Conconully Dam is one of two storage dams built in association with the Okanogan Project, which was the first irrigation project constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation in Washington State. The dam is a hydraulic earthfill structure that was constructed between 1907 and 1910. It is significant as the first, and one of only a few, hydraulic fill dams constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation. The lake created behind the dam, Conconully Reservoir, covers an area of about 450 acres. The Okanogan Project provides a dependable water supply to irrigate about 5,000 acres of land.
KETTLE FALLS ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISTRICT
Vicinity of Kettle Falls on the upper Columbia River
National Register 11/20/1974
This archaeological district encompasses 19 sites, most now partially submerged beneath the waters of Lake Roosevelt, formed when Grand Coulee Dam was constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation. The area around Kettle Falls attracted human occupation over thousands of years because it provided a particularly fine setting for harvesting of the abundant salmon runs in the Columbia. Tribes from a large area now encompassing southern British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest gathered at Kettle Falls annually to fish, trade goods, and interact. The district includes prehistoric camp and village sites and fishing locales, some with artifacts dating back 7,000 years. Because tribes gathered at Kettle Falls, in the early 19th century the Catholic Church established St. Paul's Mission and the Hudson's Bay Company established the Fort Colvile fur trading post at the location. For 30 years, Fort Colvile and St. Paul's Mission represented the largest European settlement between the Cascade Mountains and the Rockies. The historic district is located within the Grand Coulee National Recreation Area, managed by the National Park Service. St. Paul's Mission is maintained by the National Park Service as a visitor destination.