U.S.C. Title 42 - the Public Health and Welfare



Chapter 86 - Earthquake Hazards Reduction





7701. Congressional findings



The Congress finds and declares the following:



(1) All 50 States are vulnerable to the hazards of earthquakes, and at least 39 of them are subject to major or moderate seismic risk, including Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, South Carolina, Utah, and Washington. A large portion of the population of the United States lives in areas vulnerable to earthquake hazards.

(2) Earthquakes have caused, and can cause in the future, enormous loss of life, injury, destruction of property, and economic and social disruption. With respect to future earthquakes, such loss, destruction, and disruption can be substantially reduced through the development and implementation of earthquake hazards reduction measures, including (A) improved design and construction methods and practices, (B) land-use controls and redevelopment, (C) prediction techniques and early-warning systems, (D) coordinated emergency preparedness plans, and (E) public education and involvement programs.

(3) An expertly staffed and adequately financed earthquake hazards reduction program, based on Federal, State, local, and private research, planning, decision making, and contributions would reduce the risk of such loss, destruction, and disruption in seismic areas by an amount far greater than the cost of such program.

(4) A well-funded seismological research program in earthquake prediction could provide data adequate for the design, of an operational system that could predict accurately the time, place, magnitude, and physical effects of earthquakes in selected areas of the United States.

(5) The geological study of active faults and features can reveal how recently and how frequently major earthquakes have occurred on those faults and how much risk they pose. Such long-term seismic risk assessments are needed in virtually every aspect of earthquake hazards management, whether emergency planning, public regulation, detailed building design, insurance rating, or investment decision.

(6) The vulnerability of buildings, lifelines, public works, and industrial and emergency facilities can be reduced through proper earthquake resistant design and construction practices. The economy and efficacy of such procedures can be substantially increased through research and development.

(7) Programs and practices of departments and agencies of the United States are important to the communities they serve; some functions, such as emergency communications and national defense, and lifelines, such as dams, bridges, and public works, must remain in service during and after an earthquake. Federally owned, operated, and influenced structures and lifelines should serve as models for how to reduce and minimize hazards to the community.

(8) The implementation of earthquake hazards reduction measures would, as an added benefit, also reduce the risk of loss, destruction, and disruption from other natural hazards and manmade hazards, including hurricanes, tornadoes, accidents, explosions, landslides, building and structural cave-ins, and fires.

(9) Reduction of loss, destruction, and disruption from earthquakes will depend on the actions of individuals, and organizations in the private sector and governmental units at Federal, State, and local levels. The current capability to transfer knowledge and information to these sectors is insufficient. Improved mechanisms are needed to translate

existing information and research findings into reasonable and usable specifications, criteria, and practices so that individuals, organizations, and governmental units may make informed decisions and take appropriate actions.

(10) Severe earthquakes are a worldwide problem. Since damaging earthquakes occur infrequently in any one nation, international cooperation is desirable for mutual learning from limited experiences.

(11) An effective Federal program in earthquake hazards reduction will require input from and review by persons outside the Federal Government expert in the sciences of earthquake hazards reduction and in the practical application of earthquake hazards reduction measures.





7702. Congressional statement of purpose



It is the purpose of the Congress in this chapter to reduce the risks of life and property from future earthquakes in the United States through the establishment and maintenance of an effective earthquake hazards reduction program. The objectives of such program shall include -

(1) the education of the public, including State and local officials, as to earthquake phenomena, the identification of locations and structures which are especially susceptible to earthquake damage, ways to reduce the adverse consequences of an earthquake, and related matters;

(2) the development of technologically and economically feasible design and construction methods and procedures to make new and existing structures, in areas of seismic risk, earthquake resistant, giving priority to the development of such methods and procedures for power generating plants, dams, hospitals, schools, public utilities and other lifelines, public safety structures, high occupancy buildings, and other structures which are especially needed in time of disaster;

(3) the implementation to the greatest extent practicable, in all areas of high or moderate seismic risk, of a system (including personnel, technology, and procedures) for predicting damaging earthquakes and for identifying, evaluating, and accurately characterizing seismic hazards;

(4) the development, publication, and promotion, in conjunction with State and local officials and professional organizations, of model building codes and other means to encourage consideration of information about seismic risk in making decisions about land-use policy and construction activity;

(5) the development, in areas of seismic risk, of improved understanding of, and capability with respect to, earthquake-related issues, including methods of mitigating the risks from earthquakes, planning to prevent such risks, disseminating warnings of earthquakes, organization emergency services, and planning for reconstruction and redevelopment after an earthquake;

(6) the development of ways to increase the use of existing scientific and engineering knowledge to mitigate earthquake hazards; and

(7) the development of ways to assure the availability of affordable earthquake insurance.





7703. Definitions



As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:



(1) The term "includes" and variants thereof should be read as if the phrase "but is not limited to" were also set forth.

(2) The term "Program" means the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program established under section 7704 of this title.

(3) The term "seismic" and variants thereof mean having to do with, or caused by earthquakes.

(4) The term "State" means each of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

(5) The term "United States" means, when used in a geographical sense, all of the States as defined in paragraph (4) of this section.

(6) The term "lifelines" means public works and utilities, including transportation facilities and infrastructure, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power and communication facilities, and water supply and sewage treatment facilities.

(7) The term "Program agencies" means the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the United States Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.





7704. National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program



(a) Establishment



There is established a National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program.



(b) Responsibilities of Program agencies

(1) Lead agency



The Federal Emergency Management Agency (hereafter in this chapter referred to as the "Agency") shall have the primary responsibility for planning and coordinating the Program. In carrying out this paragraph, the Director of the Agency shall -



(A) prepare, in conjunction with the other Program agencies, an annual budget for the Program to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget;

(B) ensure that the Program includes the necessary steps to promote the implementation of earthquake hazard reduction measures by Federal, State, and local governments, national standards and model building code organizations, architects and engineers, and others with a role in planning and constructing buildings and lifelines;



(C) prepare, in conjunction with the other Program agencies, a written plan for the Program, which shall include specific tasks and milestones for each Program agency, and which shall be submitted to the Congress and updated at such times as may be required by significant Program events, but in no event less frequently than every 3 years;



(D) prepare, in conjunction with the other Program agencies, a biennial report, to be submitted to the Congress within 90 days after the end of each even-numbered fiscal year, which shall describe the activities and achievements of the Program during the preceding two fiscal years; and



(E) request the assistance of Federal agencies other than the Program agencies, as necessary to assist in carrying out this chapter. The principal official carrying out the responsibilities described in this paragraph shall be at a level no lower than that of Associate Director.



(2) Federal Emergency Management Agency



(A) Program responsibilities; In addition to the lead agency responsibilities described in paragraph



(1), the Director of the Agency shall -

(I) operate a program of grants and technical assistance which would enable States to develop preparedness and response plans, prepare inventories and conduct seismic safety inspections of critical structures and lifelines, update building and zoning codes and ordinances to enhance seismic safety, increase earthquake awareness and education, and encourage the development of multi-State groups for such purposes;



(ii) prepare and execute, in conjunction with the Program agencies, the Department of Education, other Federal agencies, and private sector groups, a comprehensive earthquake education and public awareness program, to include development of materials and their wide dissemination to schools and the general public;



(iii) prepare and disseminate widely, with the assistance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, other Federal agencies, and private sector groups, information on building codes and practices for structures and lifelines;



(iv) develop, and coordinate the execution of, Federal interagency plans to respond to an earthquake, with specific plans for each high-risk area which ensure the availability of adequate emergency medical resources, search and rescue personnel and equipment, and emergency broadcast capability;



(v) develop approaches to combine measures for earthquake hazards reduction with measures for reduction of other natural and technological hazards; and



(vi) provide response recommendations to communities after an earthquake prediction has been made under paragraph (3)(D). In addition, the Director of the Agency may enter into cooperative agreements or contracts with States and local jurisdictions to establish demonstration projects on earthquake hazard mitigation, to link earthquake research and mitigation efforts with emergency management programs, or to prepare educational materials for national distribution.



(B) State assistance program criteria; In order to qualify for assistance under subparagraph (A)(I), a State must -



(I) demonstrate that the assistance will result in enhanced seismic safety in the State;



(ii) provide a share of the costs of the activities for which assistance is being given, in accordance with subparagraph



(C); and

(iii) meet such other requirements as the Director of the Agency shall prescribe.



(c) Non-Federal cost sharing



(I) In the case of any State which has received, before October 1, 1990, a grant from the Agency for activities under this chapter which included a requirement for cost sharing by matching such grant, any grant obtained from the Agency for activities under subparagraph (A)(I) after such date shall not include a requirement for cost sharing in an amount greater than 50 percent of the cost of the project for which the grant is made.



(ii) In the case of any State which has not received, before October 1, 1990, a grant from the Agency for activities under this chapter which included a requirement for cost sharing by matching such grant, any grant obtained from the Agency for activities under subparagraph (A)(I) after such date - (I) shall not include a requirement for cost sharing for the first fiscal year of such a grant; (II) shall not include a requirement for cost sharing in an amount greater than 25 percent of the cost of the project for which the grant is made for the second fiscal year of such grant, and any cost sharing requirement may be satisfied through in-kind contributions; (III) shall not include a requirement for cost sharing in an amount greater than 35 percent of the cost of the project for which the grant is made for the third fiscal year of such grant, and any cost sharing requirement may be satisfied through in-kind contributions; and (IV) shall not include a requirement for cost sharing in an amount greater than 50 percent of the cost of the project for which the grant is made for the fourth and subsequent fiscal years of such grant.



(3) United States Geological Survey



The United States Geological Survey shall conduct research necessary to characterize and identify earthquake hazards, assess earthquake risks, monitor seismic activity, and improve earthquake predictions. In carrying out this paragraph, the Director of the United States Geological Survey shall -

(A) conduct a systematic assessment of the seismic risks in each region of the Nation prone to earthquakes, including, where appropriate, the establishment and operation of intensive monitoring projects on hazardous faults, seismic microzonation studies in urban and other developed areas where earthquake risk is determined to be significant, and engineering seismology studies;



(B) work with officials of State and local governments to ensure that they are knowledgeable about the specific seismic risks in their areas;



(C) develop standard procedures, in consultation with the Agency, for issuing earthquake predictions, including aftershock advisories;



(D) issue when necessary, and notify the Director of the Agency of, an earthquake prediction or other earthquake advisory, which may be evaluated by the National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council, which shall be exempt from the requirements of section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act when meeting for such purposes;



(E) establish, using existing facilities, a Center for the International Exchange of Earthquake Information which shall -



(I) promote the exchange of information on earthquake research and earthquake preparedness between the United States and other nations;



(ii) maintain a library containing selected reports, research papers, and data produced through the Program;



(iii) answer requests from other nations for information on United States earthquake research and earthquake preparedness programs; and



(iv) direct foreign requests to the agency involved in the Program which is best able to respond to the request; and



(FOOTNOTE 1)



(FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. The word "and" probably should not

appear.

(F) operate a National Seismic Network; (FOOTNOTE 2)



(FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Probably should be followed by "and".

(G) support regional seismic networks, which shall complement the National

Seismic Network.



(4) National Science Foundation



The National Science Foundation shall be responsible for funding research on earth

sciences to improve the understanding of the causes and behavior of earthquakes, on earthquake engineering, and on human response to earthquakes. In carrying out this paragraph, the Director of the National Science Foundation shall -



(A) encourage prompt dissemination of significant findings, sharing of data, samples, physical collections, and other supporting materials, and development of intellectual property so research results can be used by appropriate organizations to mitigate earthquake damage;



(B) in addition to supporting individual investigators, support university research consortia and centers for research in geosciences and in earthquake engineering;



(C) work closely with the United States Geological Survey to identify geographic regions of national concern that should be the focus of targeted solicitations for earthquake-related research proposals;



(D) emphasize, in earthquake engineering research, development of economically feasible methods to retrofit existing buildings and to protect lifelines to mitigate earthquake damage; and



(E) support research that studies the political, economic, and social factors that influence the implementation of hazard reduction measures.



(5) National Institute of Standards and Technology



The National Institute of Standards and Technology shall be responsible for carrying out research and development to improve building codes and standards and practices for structures and lifelines. In carrying out this paragraph, the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall -

(A) work closely with national standards and model building code organizations, in conjunction with the Agency, to promote the implementation of research results;



(B) promote better building practices among architects and engineers; and



(C) work closely with national standards organizations to develop seismic safety standards and practices for new and existing lifelines.





7704a. Report on seismic safety property standards



(a) Authority



The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (in this section referred to as the "Secretary") shall assess the risk of earthquake-related damage to properties assisted under programs administered by the Secretary and shall develop seismic safety standards for such properties. This section may not be construed to prohibit the Secretary from deferring to local building codes that meet the requirements of the seismic safety standards developed under this section.



(b) Standards



The standards shall be designed to reduce the risk of loss of life to building occupants to the maximum extent feasible and to reduce the risk of shake-related property damage to the maximum extent practicable.



(c) Consultation



In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall consult with the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and may utilize the resources under the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (established under the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (42 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.)) and any other resources as may be required to carry out the activities under this section.



(d) Reports



(1) Submission and contents



The Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress, not less than biennially, containing a statement of the findings of the risk assessment study conducted under this section, including risk assessment of properties located in seismic risk zones and a compilation of the standards developed pursuant to this section. The report shall also include a statement of the activities undertaken by the Secretary to carry out this section and the amount and sources of any funds expended by the Secretary for such purposes. The report shall also include a statement of the activities undertaken by the Secretary to carry out the requirements of Executive Order No. 12699 (January 5, 1990) and the amount and sources of any funds expended by the Secretary for such purposes.

(2) Initial submission



The first report required under this subsection shall be submitted not later than the expiration of the 18-month period beginning on November 28, 1990.





7705. Office of Science and Technology Policy report



The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall, within 3 months after November 16, 1990, report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives with respect to how the Office of Science and Technology Policy can play a role in interagency coordination, planning, and operation of the Program.





7705a. Advisory Committee



There is established a National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Advisory Committee (hereafter in this chapter referred to as the "Advisory Committee"), which shall advise the Program agencies on planning and implementing the Program. The Director of the Agency shall, in consultation with the directors of the Program agencies, determine the number of members on the Advisory Committee and the duration of their terms, and appoint the Chairman and Members of the Advisory Committee. The Advisory Committee shall have balanced representation of State and local governments, the design professions, the research community, business and industry, and the general public. The Advisory Committee shall meet at the call of the Chairman, but in no event less often than every 6 months. The Advisory Committee shall submit a written report directly to the Congress, without review by the Office of Management and Budget or any other agency, by January 31 of each calendar year beginning after November 16, 1990, which shall describe any recommendations the Advisory Committee has made to the Program agencies during the preceding year. Members of the Advisory Committee shall serve without compensation but may receive reimbursement for expenses. All expenses of the Advisory Committee shall be borne by the Agency. The Advisory Committee shall expire September 30, 1993.





7705b. Seismic standards



(a) Buildings



(1) Adoption of standards



The President shall adopt, not later than December 1, 1994, standards for assessing and enhancing the seismic safety of existing buildings constructed for or leased by the Federal Government which were designed and constructed without adequate seismic design and construction standards. Such standards shall be developed by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction, whose chairman is the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology or his designee, and which shall work in consultation with appropriate private sector organizations.





(2) Report to Congress



The President shall report to the Congress, not later than December 1, 1994, on how the standards adopted under paragraph (1) could be applied with respect to buildings -



(A) for which Federal financial assistance has been obtained through grants, loans, financing guarantees, or loan or mortgage insurance programs; or



(B) the structural safety of which is regulated by a Federal agency.



(3) Regulations



The President shall ensure the issuance, before February 1, 1993, by all Federal agencies of final regulations required by section 4(b) of Executive Order numbered 12699, issued January 5, 1990.

(b) Lifelines



The Director of the Agency, in consultation with the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, shall submit to the Congress, not later than June 30, 1992, a plan, including precise timetables and budget estimates, for developing and adopting, in consultation with appropriate private sector organizations, design and construction standards for lifelines. The plan shall include recommendations of ways Federal regulatory authority could be used to expedite the implementation of such standards.





7705c. Acceptance of gifts



(a) Authority



In furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the Director of the Agency may accept and use bequests, gifts, or donations of services, money, or property, notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31.



(b) Criteria



The Director of the Agency shall establish by regulation criteria for determining whether to accept bequests, gifts, or donations of services, money, or property. Such criteria shall take into consideration whether the acceptance of the bequest, gift, or donation would reflect unfavorably on the Director's ability to carry out his responsibilities in a fair and objective manner, or would compromise the integrity of, or the appearance of the integrity of, the Program or any official involved in administering the Program.





7705d. Non-Federal cost sharing for supplemental funds



A grant under this chapter to a State from the Agency that is made with funds appropriated under the Fiscal Year 1990 Dire Emergency Supplemental to Meet the Needs of Natural Disasters of National Significance (Public Law 101-130; 103 Stat. 775) shall not include a requirement for cost sharing in an amount greater than 25 percent of the cost of the project for which the grant is made, and any cost sharing requirement may be satisfied through in-kind contributions.





7705e. Post-earthquake investigations program



There is established within the United States Geological Survey a post-earthquake investigations program, the purpose of which is to investigate major earthquakes, so as to learn lessons which can be applied to reduce the loss of lives and property in future earthquakes. The United States Geological Survey, in consultation with each Program agency, shall organize investigations to study the implications of the earthquake in the areas of responsibility of each Program agency. The investigations shall begin as rapidly as possible and may be conducted by grantees and contractors. The Program agencies shall ensure that the results of investigations are disseminated widely. The Director of the Survey is authorized to utilize earthquake expertise from the Agency, the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, other Federal agencies, and private contractors, on a reimbursable basis, in the conduct of such earthquake investigations. At a minimum, investigations under this section shall include -



(1) analysis by the National Science Foundation and the United States Geological Survey of the causes of the earthquake and the nature of the resulting ground motion;



(2) analysis by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Standards and Technology of the behavior of structures and lifelines, both those that were damaged and those that were undamaged; and



(3) analysis by each of the Program agencies of the effectiveness of the earthquake hazards mitigation programs and actions relating to its area of responsibility under the Program, and how those programs and actions could be strengthened.





7706. Authorization of appropriations



(a) General authorization for program



(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out the provisions of sections 7704 and 7705 of this title (in addition to any authorizations for similar purposes included in other Acts and the authorizations set forth in subsections (b) and (c) of this section), not to exceed $1,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978, not to exceed $2,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979, and not to exceed $2,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980.



(2) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director to carry out the provisions of sections 7704 and 7705 of this title for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981 -



(A) $1,000,000 for continuation of the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction and the Building Seismic Safety Council programs,

(B) $1,500,000 for plans and preparedness for earthquake disasters,

(C) $500,000 for prediction response planning,



(D) $600,000 for architectural and engineering planning and practice programs,



(E) $1,000,000 for development and application of a public education program,



(F) $3,000,000 for use by the National Science Foundation in addition to the amount authorized to be appropriated under subsection (c) of this section, which amount includes $2,400,000 for earthquake policy research and $600,000 for the strong ground motion element of the siting program, and



(G) $1,000,000 for use by the Center for Building Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology in addition to the amount authorized to be appropriated under subsection (d) of this section for earthquake activities in the Center.



(3) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982, $2,000,000 to carry out the provisions of sections 7704 and 7705 of this title.



(4) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director, to carry out the provisions of sections 7704 and 7705 of this title, $1,281,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983.



(5) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director, to carry out the provisions of sections 7704 and 7705 of this title, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, $3,705,000, and for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985, $6,096,000.



(6) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director, to carry out the provisions of sections 7704 and 7705 of this title, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986, $5,596,000, and for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987, $5,848,000.



(7) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Director of the Agency, to carry out this chapter, $5,778,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988, $5,788,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1989, $8,798,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1990, $14,750,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1991, $19,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1992, $22,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993, $25,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995, and $25,750,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996.



(b) United States Geological Survey



There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of the Interior for purposes for carrying out, through the Director of the United States Geological Survey, the responsibilities that may be assigned to the Director under this chapter not to exceed $27,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978; not to exceed $35,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979; not to exceed $40,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980; $32,484,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981; $34,425,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982; $31,843,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983; $35,524,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984; $37,300,200 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985 (FOOTNOTE 1) $35,578,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986; $37,179,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987; $38,540,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988; $41,819,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1989; $55,283,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1990, of which $8,000,000 shall be for earthquake investigations under section 7705e of this title; $50,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1991; $54,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1992; $62,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993; $49,200,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995; and $50,676,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996.



(FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be followed by a semicolon.



(c) National Science Foundation



To enable the Foundation to carry out responsibilities that may be assigned to it under this chapter, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Foundation not to exceed $27,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978; not to exceed $35,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979; not to exceed $40,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980; $26,600,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981; $27,150,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982; $25,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983; $25,800,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984; $28,665,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985 (FOOTNOTE 1) $27,760,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986; $29,009,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987; $28,235,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988; $31,634,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1989; $38,454,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1990. Of the amounts authorized for Engineering under section 101(d)(1)(B) of the National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 1988, $24,000,000 is authorized for carrying out this chapter for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1991, and of the amounts authorized for Geosciences (FOOTNOTE 2) under section 101(d)(1)(D) of the National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 1988, $13,000,000 is authorized for carrying out this chapter for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1991. Of the amounts authorized for Research and Related Activities under section 101(e)(1) of the National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 1988, $29,000,000 is authorized for engineering research under this chapter, and $14,750,000 is authorized for geosciences research under this chapter, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1992. Of the amounts authorized for Research and Related Activities under section 101(f)(1) of the National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 1988, $34,500,000 is authorized for engineering research under this chapter, and $17,500,000 is authorized for geosciences research under this chapter, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993. There are authorized to be appropriated, out of funds otherwise authorized to be appropriated to the National Science Foundation: (1) $16,200,000 for engineering research and $10,900,000 for geosciences research for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995, and (2) $16,686,000 for engineering research and $11,227,000 for geosciences research for the fiscal year ending

September 30, 1996.



(FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

(d) National Institute of Standards and Technology



To enable the National Institute of Standards and Technology to carry out responsibilities that may be assigned to it under this chapter, there are authorized to be appropriated $425,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981; $425,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982; $475,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983; $475,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984; $498,750 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985



(FOOTNOTE 1) $499,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986; $521,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987; $525,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988; $525,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1989; $2,525,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1990; $1,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1991; $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1992; and $4,750,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993. There are authorized to be appropriated, out of funds otherwise authorized to be appropriated to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, $1,900,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995, and $1,957,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996.



(e) Funds for certain required adjustments



For each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1982, September 30, 1983, September 30, 1984, and September 30, 1985, there are authorized to be appropriated such further sums as may be necessary for adjustments required by law in salaries, pay, retirement, and employee benefits incurred in the conduct of activities for which funds are authorized by the preceding provisions of this section.



(f) Availability of funds



Funds appropriated for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993 pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended.