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Case Studies

Military Water Treatment Systems
To address treatment issues involved in the current theater of battle representatives from the US Army Tank Automotive Research and Development Command (TARDC, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, (NFESC) and Reclamation’s Desalination Research Team (86-68221) are working together with the Office of Naval Research (ONR) to developing new technologies for efficient and robust desalination systems.

Variable Salinity Desalination – Built in Flexibility
In partnership with the Texas Water Development Board, Brownsville Public Utilities Board, and the Reclamation Oklahoma-Texas Area Office, the Reclamation Desalination Research Team is demonstrating a Flexible Variable Source Water desalination system. The objective of the study is to gather energy use and water quality data and to discover potential operational issues with the flexible system design. The initial work is being done with a reconfigured Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) and will lead to a design for an optimized demonstration project that may be partnered between Reclamation, the state, a local utility, and the government of Singapore (through the Water Reuse foundation).

The Long Beach Nano-Nano pilot study was a 2005 Title XVI demonstration project to test the idea of saving energy in seawater desalination by using two stages of low-pressure nanofiltration membrane rather than one stage of reverse osmosis membrane. Reclamation participated in technical review, data reduction and interpretation.

Seawater demonstration at West Basin Municipal Water District: Title XVI originally funded innovations in creating tailored water qualities using tertiary treated wastewater. The current project is looking at seawater as the next new water source through a grant from the WaterSMART AWT pilot and demonstration program. Because of the significance of this project, the district asked Reclamation to participate, and the Science and Technology Program funded a project for a Reclamation technical expert to participate in the demonstration project.

Municipal Water District of Orange County, California (MWDOC). The DWPR program originally funded to research using slant wells for a seawater desalination plant intake. The successful demonstration has led to a larger scale demonstration, currently funded by the district and the Environmental Protection Agency. Reclamation’s SCAO is working with the district to use a portion of the EPA funds to hire a Reclamation technical expert.

See our demonstration and other desalination projects in conjunction with the Water ReUse Foundation.

Desalination and Water Purification Research Program Reports

Report Title Performing Agency Date Report # See Also
Nanofiltration of a High Salinity Groundwater on the Hopi Reservation Northern Arizona University; Flagstaff AZ May-95 3
Lake Havasu City Water Treatment Study Bureau of Reclamation; Denver CO Apr-95 8 Membrane-
Membrane-specific contaminants
Brighton ED Testing with Asahi Monovalent Membranes D&N Engineering; Lakewood CO Sep-95 14 Electrical energy processes
Maricopa Ground Water Treatment Bureau of Reclamation; Denver CO Feb-96 15 Membrane-specific contaminants,
Electrical energy processes
Eastern Municipal Water District RO Treatment/Saline Vegetated Wetlands Pilot Study Bureau of Reclamation; Denver CO Apr-96 16 Concentrate Management
Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Central Arizona Project Water for the City of Tucson Tucson Water Department, Tucson AZ; USBR; Denver CO Jan-04 36
Salinity and TOC Removal Using Nanofiltration University of Texas at El Paso; El Paso TX Aug-02 46 Membrane
Fouling and Cleaning
Improvements in Wastewater Treatment at the Leadville Mine Tunnel New Mexico State University; Las Cruces NM Jun-02 47 Water Reuse
Demonstration Testing of ZenoGem™ and Reverse Osmosis for Indirect Potable Reuse CH2M Hill; Tempe AZ May-02 51 Water Reuse
Evaluation of Two Concentrate Disposal Alternatives for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area: Evaporation Ponds and Discharge to the Gulf of California Bureau of Reclamation: Denver CO; for the Sub-Regional Operating Group of the Arizona Municipal Water Users Association Mar-00 54 Concentrate Management
Membrane Bioreactors for Water Repurification-Phase II City of San Diego; San Diego CA; Metropolitan Wastewater-Public Works; San Diego CA Nov-00 60 Water Reuse
Evaluation of the Port Hueneme Demonstration Plant Bureau of Reclamation; Denver, CO May-01 65 Membranes,
Electrical energy processes
Biological Stability of Drinking Water Through Ozonation at the Croton Water Supply in New York City Bureau of Water Supply, Quality, and Protection of the New York City Department of Environmental Protection; New York, NY Jun-08 75 Water Supply
Improving the Thermodynamic and Economic Efficiencies of Desalination Plants: Minimum Work Required for Desalination and Case Studies of Four Working Plants University of Nevada; Reno, NV Nov-03 78 Ancillary Improvements,
Decision Support
Treatment of Wastewaters for Water Reuse by a Catalytic Sonochemical Process - Phase II University of Delaware, Newark, DE May-06 88 Water Reuse
Zero Waste Brine Management for Desalination Plant University of Texas at El Paso; El Paso TX Dec-02 89 Concentrate Management
Optimization of Various MBR Systems for Water Reclamation — Phase III City of San Diego Water DepartmentMontgomery Watson Harza Apr-04 103 Water Reuse
Volume Reduction of High-Silica RO Concentrate Using Membranes and Lime Treatment Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso; El Paso, Texas Mar-04 108 Concentrate Management
Reverse Osmosis Recovery Maximization (abstract) Carollo Engineers; Fountain Valley CA Mar-08 119 Concentrate Management
Dewvaporation Desalination 5,000 Gallon Per Day Pilot Plant L'Eau LLC; Tempe AZ Jun-08 120 Thermal
Cost-Effective Volume Reduction of Silica-Saturated RO Concentrate University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso TX Feb-08 125 Concentrate Management
Riverton City Desalination of Mineralized Ground Water Pilot Project Epic Engineering; West Valley City UT Apr-09 131 Electrical energy processes
Pilot-Scale Studies for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation-Based Desalination Process New Jersey Institute of Technology; Newark NJ Sep-09 134 Thermal
Evaluation of Newly Developed Membrane Bioreactor Systems for Water Reclamation Montgomery Watson Harza; Arcadia, CA Feb-09 147 Water Reuse
Halfway Wash Water Treatment Pilot Study Bureau of Reclamation; Denver, CO Aug-06 148
Research and Development for Horizontal/Angle Well Technology (abstract) Municipal Water District of Orange County; Fountain Valley CA Oct-08 151 Ancillary Improvements, Seawater Desalination
Results of Drilling, Construction, Development, and Testing of Dana Point Ocean Desalination Project Test Slant Well Municipal Water District of Orange County; Fountain Valley CA Jan-09 152 Ancillary Improvements
Seawater Desalination
Water Reuse Study for Big, Bear California Bureau of Reclamation; Denver, CO Apr-08 154 Water Reuse