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Advanced Water Treatment --> Title XVI – Water Reuse and Desalination Research

WateReuse Research Foundation Research Results and Products:

Under current Cooperative Agreements (CA) with the WateReuse Research Foundation, full reports produced with Reclamation funding are available for purchase through the WateReuse Research Foundation website (http://www.watereuse.org/foundation/publications).

If you are a Reclamation employee, the research reports can be found on the WateReuse SharePoint site (https://dosp/techResc/TSC/TRC/WRF/default.aspx).

Abstracts of projects that use Reclamation funding are provided below:

Note: If a report does not have a link, it is still in the development stage. Some reports are listed under more than one category.

Chemistry and Toxicology


WRF-01-001: Alternative Methods for the Analysis of NDMA and Other Nitrosamines in Water and Wastewater (abstract pdf)
WRF-01-002: Removal and Destruction of NDMA and NDMA Precursors during Wastewater Treatment (abstract pdf)
WRF-01-007: Removal of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water Reclamation Processes (abstract pdf)
WRF-01-008: Towards an Innovative DNA Array Technology for Detection of Pharmaceuticals in Reclaimed Water (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-002: Investigation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) Fate and Transport (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-008: A Reconnaissance-Level Quantitative Comparison of Reclaimed Water, Surface Water, and Ground Water
WRF-03-013: Rejection of Contaminants of Concern by Nanofiltration and Ultra-low Pressure Reverse Osmosis Membranes for Treating Water of Impaired Quality (abstract pdf)
WRF-03-014: Development of Indicators and Surrogates for Chemical Contaminant Removal during Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-003: Toxicological Relevance of Endocrine Disruptors & Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-013: Improved Sample Collection and Concentration Method for Multiple Pathogen Detection (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-016: Development of Regulatory Protocol for Incidental Environmental Reuse of Title 22 Recycled Water (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-017: Reaction Rates and Mechanisms of AOP Technologies for Water Reuse (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-018: Contributions of Household Chemicals to Sewage and Relevance to Municipal Wastewater Systems and the Environment (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-019: Methods for the Detection of Residual Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide in Advanced Oxidation Processes (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-020: Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Cost of Treatment Technologies for the Minimization of NDMA Formation and/or Destruction
WRF-05-004: Development of Surrogates to Determine the Efficacy of Soil Aquifer Treatment Systems for the Removal of Organic Chemicals (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-005: Identifying Pharmaceuticals / Personal Care Products of Most Health Concern / Persistence through Water Treatments Used for Indirect Potable Reuse (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-007: Selection and Testing of Tracers for Measuring Travel Times in Groundwater Aquifers Augmented with Treated Wastewater Effluent
WRF-05-008: The Effect of Salinity on the Removal of Contaminants of Concern During Biological Water Reclamation (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-010: Oxidative Destruction of Organics in Membrane Concentrates (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-011: Assessment of the Potential Presence of Chemical Contaminants in Water Produced by Desalination Systems (abstract pdf)
WRF-06-004: Identifying Health Effects Concerns of the Water Reuse Industry and Prioritizing Research Needs for Nomination of Chemicals for Research to Appropriate National and International Agencies (abstract pdf)
WRF-06-005: Leaching of Metals from Aquifer Soils during Infiltration of Low-Ionic-Strength Reclaimed Water
WRF-06-006: Comparisons of Chemical Composition of Recycled and Conventional Waters
WRF-06-012: Optimization of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) for Water Reuse
WRF-06-018-1A Development and Application of Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Regulated Chemicals in Indirect Potable Reuse Projects:The Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge Project
WRF-06-018-1B Development and Application of Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Regulated Chemicals in Indirect Potable Reuse Projects:The Chino Basin Groundwater Recharge Project
WRF-06-018-2 Development and Application of Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Drugs and Other Chemicals in Indirect Potable Reuse Water
WRF-06-019: Monitoring for Microconstituents in an Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility and Modeling Discharge of Reclaimed Water to Surface Canals for Indirect Potable Use
WRF-06-020: Attenuation of Emerging Contaminants in Streams Augmented with Recycled Water
WRF-07-04: Evaluation of Impact on Nanoparticle Pollutants on Water Reclamation
WRF-09-07: Risk Assessment Study of PPCPs in Recycled Water to Support Public Review (Please see policy)
WRF-09-08: Evaluation of Potential Nutrient Impacts Related to Florida’s Water Reuse Program
WRF-10-07: Development of Bio-analytical Techniques to Assess the Potential Human Health Impacts of Recycled Water
WRF-10-16: Enzymes: The New Wastewater Treatment Chemical for Water Reuse


Desalination and Concentrate Management

WRF-02-005: National Salinity Management Clearinghouse
WRF-02-006a: Evaluations of High Recovery and ZLD Technologies and Applicability for Water Utilities (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-006b: Beneficial and Nontraditional Uses of Concentrate (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-006c: Impacts of Membrane Process Residuals on Wastewater Treatment (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-006d: Regional Solutions for Disposing of Concentrate (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-015: Joint Water Reuse and Desalination Task Force Desalination Workshop (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-009: Dewatering Reverse Osmosis Concentrate from Water Reuse Applications Using Direct Osmosis (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-011: Assessment of the Potential Presence of Chemical Contaminants in Water Produced by Desalination Systems (abstract pdf)
WRF-06-014: Characterization of US Seawaters and Development of Standardized Protocols for Evaluation of Foulants in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination
WRF-07-02: Development of Information Clearinghouse on Concentrate and Salt Management Processes – Phase 1
WRF-08-17: Reclaimed Water Desalination Technologies: A Full-Scale Performance and Cost Comparison Between EDR and MF/RO
WRF-09-12: Continuous Flow Seawater RO System for Recovery of Silica-Saturated RO Concentrate
WRF-10-09: Guidance for Selection of Selective Salt, Metal, Radionuclide, and other Valuable Material Recovery


Microbiology and Disinfection

WRF-01-006: Characterizing Microbial Water Quality in Reclaimed Water Distribution Systems (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-001: Rejection of Wastewater-Derived Micropollutants in High-Pressure Membrane Applications Leading to Indirect Potable Reuse: Effects of Membrane and Micropollutant Properties (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-008: A Reconnaissance-Level Quantitative Comparison of Reclaimed Water, Surface Water, and Ground Water
WRF-03-001: Pathogen Removal and Inactivation in Reclamation Plants – Study Design (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-011: Application of Microbial Risk Assessment Techniques to Estimate Risk Due to Exposure to Reclaimed Waters – Phase 1 (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-012: Development of a Guidan ce Document for Applying Sound Statistics for Microbial Data Associated with Reclaimed Water Systems (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-013: Improved Sample Collection and Concentration Method for Multiple Pathogen Detection (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-002: Microbiological Quality and Biostability of Reclaimed Water Following Storage and Distribution (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-003: Alternative Viability/Infectivity Surrogates for Giardia for Which Cell Culture Infectivity Assays Are Not Available (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-005: Identifying Pharmaceuticals / Personal Care Products of Most Health Concern / Persistence through Water Treatments Used for Indirect Potable Reuse (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-006: Evaluate Wetland Systems for Treated Wastewater Performance to Meet Competing Effluent Quality Goals (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-008: The Effect of Salinity on the Removal of Contaminants of Concern During Biological Water Reclamation (abstract pdf)
WRF-06-003: The Occurrence of infectious Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Raw, Treated, and Disinfected Wastewater
WRF-06-011: Enhanced Disinfection and Adenoviruses with UF Irradiation
WRF-06-015: Sequential UV and Chlorination for Reclaimed Water Disinfection
WRF-07-01: Examination of Microbiological Methods for Use with Reclaimed Waters
WRF-08-07: Disinfection Guidelines for Satellite Water Recycling Facilities
WRF-08-18: Infectivity Assay for Giardia lamblia Cysts
WRF-08-19: Investigation of Desalination Membrane Biofouling
WRF-09-09: Pilot Testing Pre-formed Chloramines as a Means of Controlling Biofouling in Seawater Desalination
WRF-09-10: UV and Fluorescence Spectra as Surrogate Measure For Contaminant Oxidation and Disinfection in Ozone/Peroxide AOPs

Natural Systems, Groundwater Recharge, Storage

WRF-03-009: Reclaimed Water Aquifer Storage and Recovery: Potential Changes in Water Quality (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-001: Sustainable Underground Storage of Recoverable Water (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-021: Selecting Treatment Trains for Seasonal Storage of Reclaimed Water Treatment of Influent to and Withdrawals from Storage: A Resource Guide (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-002: Microbiological Quality and Biostability of Reclaimed Water Following Storage and Distribution (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-004: Development of Surrogates to Determine the Efficacy of Soil Aquifer Treatment Systems for the Removal of Organic Chemicals (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-006: Evaluate Wetland Systems for Treated Wastewater Performance to Meet Competing Effluent Quality Goals (abstract pdf)
WRF-06-005: Leaching of Metals from Aquifer Soils during Infiltration of Low-Ionic-Strength Reclaimed Water
WRF-06-018: Tools to Assess & Understand the Relative Risks of Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR) & Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) (Please see Chemistry and Toxicology)
WRF-08-10: Maximizing Recovery of Recycled Water For Groundwater Recharge Employing an Integrated Membrane System
WRF-09-05: Case Studies of Seasonal Storage of Reclaimed Water for Discharge Into Surface Waters
WRF-09-11: Development of New Tracers for Determining Travel Time Near MAR Operations
WRF-10-05: Role of Retention Time in the Environmental Buffer of Indirect Potable Reuse Projects
WRF-10-10: Demonstration of Filtration and Disinfection Compliance through SAT


Policy, Social Sciences, and Applications

WRF-01-004: Best Practices for Developing Indirect Potable Reuse Projects: Phase 1 Report (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-004: National Database of Water Reuse Facilities Summary Report (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-004B: National Database of Water Reuse Facilities Website
WRF-02-007: Using Surfactants in Optimizing Water Usage on Turfgrasses (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-011: Framework for Developing Water Reuse Criteria with Reference to Drinking Water Supplies (abstract pdf)
WRF-03-005: Marketing Nonpotable Recycled Water: A Guidebook for Successful Public Outreach & Customer Marketing (abstract pdf)
WRF-03-006: An Economic Framework for Evaluating the Benefits and Costs of Water Reuse (abstract pdf)
WRF-03-010: WateReuse Foundation’s Water Reuse Research Needs Workshop (abstract pdf)
WRF-03-011: Research Needs Assessment Workshop: Human Reactions to Water Reuse (abstract pdf)
WRF-03-012: The Salinity Management Guide (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-002: Water Conservation on Golf Course Fairways Using Recycled Water (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-005: Use of Recycled Water for Community Gardens (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-008: Understanding Mental Models of Water: Origins, Quality, Contamination, Naturalness, and Risk (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-009: Reclaimed Water Inspection and Cross Connection Control Guidebook (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-010: Extending the Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) Process to Include Water Reuse and other Nontraditional Water Sources (NTWS) (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-014: Decision Support System for Selection of Satellite vs. Regional Treatment for Reuse (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-016: Development of Regulatory Protocol for Incidental Environmental Reuse of Title 22 Recycled Water
WRF-04-016B: A Protocol for Estimating Potential Water Quality Impacts of Recycled Water Projects: Final Report and Pilot Tests
WRF-05-001: Evaluating Pricing Levels and Structures to Support Reclaimed Water Systems (abstract pdf)
WRF-06-001: Project to Conduct Survey Research to Obtain Information/Data from All Water Recycling Facilities in California
WRF-06-002: Developing a Pragmatic Research Agenda for Examining the Value of Water Supply Reliability
WRF-06-010: Considerations for Co-siting of Desalination Facilities with Municipal and Industrial Facilities
WRF-06-014: Characterization of US Seawaters and Development of Standardized Protocols for Evaluation of Foulants in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination
WRF-06-016: Guidance on Links between Water Reclamation and Reuse and Regional Growth
WRF-06-017: Water Reuse in 2030
WRF-06-021: Interagency Partnerships to Facilitate Water Reuse
WRF-07-06: Recycled Water Use in Zoo and Wildlife Facility Settings and Potential Effects of Animal Health and Well Being
WRF-08-04: Approaches to Maintain Consistently High Quality Reclaimed Water in Storage and Distribution Systems
WRF-08-09: Value of Water Supply Reliability in Residential Sector
WRF-09-13: Water Reuse and Desalination Research Needs Workshop
WRF-08-11: Process Optimization, Monitoring and Control Strategies, and Carbon and Energy Footprint Evaluation In Water Reuse: Full-Scale Microfiltration, Reverse Osmosis, and UV/H2O2
WRF-08-12: Water Use Requirements and Water Quality Criteria for Water Reuse in Energy, Power, and Biofuels Production
WRF-08-13: Renewable Energy, Peak Power Management and Optimization of Advanced Treatment Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases at Water Reuse and Desalination Facilities
WRF-08-15: Evaluating Emergency Planning under Climate Change Scenarios to Better Assess the Role of Water Reuse
WRF-08-16: Implications of Future Water Supply Sources on Energy Demands
WRF-09-01: The Effect of Prior Knowledge of ‘Unplanned’ Potable Reuse on Acceptance of ‘Planned’ Potable Reuse
WRF-09-02: Framework to Determine When to Use IPR Systems vs. Dual Pipe Systems With or Without Point of Use Treatment
WRF-09-03: Utility of HACCP Approach for Evaluating Integrity of Treatment Barriers for Reuse
WRF-09-04: The Value of Water Supply Reliability in the CII Sector
WRF-09-07-2 PPCP Communications Toolkit
WRF-09-07-3 Talking About Water: Vocabulary and Images that Support Informed Decisions about Water Recycling and Desalination
WRF-10-01: Fit for Purpose Water: The Cost of “Over-Treating” Reclaimed and other Water
WRF-10-03: Regulatory Workshop on Critical Issues of Desalination Permitting
WRF-10-15: Establishing Nitrification Reliability Guidelines for Water Reuse
WRF-10-17: Understanding the Influence of Stakeholder Groups on the Effectiveness of Urban Recycled Water Program Implementation

Treatment Technologies


WRF-01-005: Characterizing and Managing Salinity Loadings in Reclaimed Water Systems (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-001: Rejection of Wastewater-Derived Micropollutants in High-Pressure Membrane Applications Leading to Indirect Potable Reuse: Effects of Membrane and Micropollutant Properties (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-003: Filter Loading Evaluation for Water Reuse (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-006a: Evaluations of High Recovery and ZLD Technologies and Applicability for Water Utilities (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-006c: Impacts of Membrane Process Residuals on Wastewater Treatment (abstract pdf)
WRF-02-009: Study of Innovative Treatment on Reclaimed Water (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-004: Honolulu Membrane Bioreactor Pilot Study (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-014: Decision Support System for Selection of Satellite vs. Regional Treatment for Reuse (abstract pdf)
WRF-04-017: Reaction Rates and Mechanisms of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Reuse
WRF-05-006: Evaluate Wetland Systems for Treated Wastewater Performance to Meet Competing Effluent Quality Goals (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-008: The Effect of Salinity on the Removal of Contaminants of Concern During Biological Water Reclamation (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-009: Dewatering Reverse Osmosis Concentrate from Water Reuse Applications Using Direct Osmosis (abstract pdf)
WRF-05-010: Oxidative Destruction of Organics in Membrane Concentrates (abstract pdf)
WRF-06-007: MBR Effluent Water Quality: Water the Technology Can and Can’t Do
WRF-06-008: Low Cost Treatment Technologies for Small Scale Water Reclamation Plants
WRF-06-009: Predictive Models to Aid in Design of Membrane Systems for Organic Micropollutants Removal
WRF-06-012: Optimization of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) for Water Reuse
WRF-06-013: Investigating the Feasibility of a Membrane Biofilm Reactor (MBfR) to Achieve Low Nitrogen Levels for Water Reclamation and Reuse
WRF-07-05: Membrane Distillation for Water Reuse using Nanostructured Ceramic Membranes
WRF-08-05: Use of Ozone in Water Reclamation for Contaminant Oxidation
WRF-08-06: Evaluation of Alternatives to Domestic Ion Exchange Water Softeners
WRF-08-08: Pilot-Scale Oxidative Techniques For Reducing Fouling Potential in Water Reuse and Drinking Water Membrane Systems
WRF-08-10: Maximizing Recovery of Recycled Water For Groundwater Recharge Employing an Integrated Membrane System
WRF-08-14: Evaluation and Optimization of Existing and Emerging Energy Recovery Devices for Desalination and Wastewater Membrane Treatment Plants
WRF-08-17: Reclaimed Water Desalination Technologies: A Full-Scale Performance and Cost Comparison Between EDR and MF/RO
WRF-09-06: Develop New Techniques for Real-Time Monitoring of Membrane Integrity
WRF-10-04: Improvements to Minimize Impingement and Entrainment of Existing Intakes
WRF-10-06: Lower Energy Treatment Schemes for Water Reuse
WRF-10-11: Ozone Pretreatment of Non-Nitrified Secondary Effluent Before Microfiltration