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Ines Meireles, Jorge Matos, Kathy Frizell. 2007. "Measuring Air Entrainment and Flow Bulking in Skimming Flow over Steeply Sloping Stepped Chutes". Bureau of Reclamation, Report Number PAP-968.

Abstract: Air entrainment and flow bulking along a steeply sloping stepped chute are analysed as a function of the characteristic depth used for defining the free-surface. The results of this investigation show that both the mean air concentration and the bulked depth may be considerably influenced by the definition of the free surface. They also show that the region in the vicinity of the point of inception may be the most critical concerning flow bulking, and consequently the chute sidewall design height. Empirical models are also presented for predicting the maximum flow bulking on the chute, as a function of the normalized critical depth.

Web Link: http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/PAP/PAP-0968.pdf

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