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K. Warren Frizell. 1987. "Noise Generation by Air Bubbles in Water: An Experimental Studay of Creation and Splitting. A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota". Bureau of Reclamation, Report Number PAP-1044.

Abstract: The study of two-phase flow, especially air-water mixtures, has received much attention over the years. Little has been done concerning the noise generated by non-cavitating air-water flows. The main purpose of this work is to examine thses flows; in particular, to look at the noise associated with the creation of air bubbles at a nozzle, and the noise radiated by air bubbles splitting in the shear layer of a submerged turbulent water jet. Experiments were conducted to measure the sound pressure levels associated with bubble creation and bubble splitting, under a variety of conditions. Comparisons were made with existing theories. An improved physical understanding of the mechanism of noise generation was gained through data analysis and photographic studies. Recommendations for further research are given.

Web Link: http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/PAP/PAP-1044.pdf

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