CHAPTER 11 - ACOUSTIC FLOW MEASUREMENT
8. Doppler-Type Acoustic Flowmeter
The Doppler flowmeter measures the velocity of particles moving with the flowing fluid (figure 11-2a). Acoustic signals of known frequency are transmitted, reflected from particles, and are picked up by a receiver. The received signals are analyzed for frequency shifts (changes), and the resulting mean value of the frequency shifts can be directly related to the mean velocity of the particles moving with the fluid. System electronics are used to reject stray signals and correct for frequency changes caused by the pipe wall or transducer protective material. Doppler flowmeter performance is highly dependent on physical properties such as the liquid's sonic conductivity, particle density, and flow profile. Likewise, nonuniformity of particle distribution in the pipe cross section results in a computed mean velocity that is incorrectly weighted. Therefore, the meter accuracy is sensitive to velocity profile variations and to distribution of acoustic reflectors in the measurement section. Unlike other acoustic flowmeters, Doppler meters are affected by changes in the liquid's sonic velocity. As a result, the meter is sensitive to changes in density and temperature. These problems make Doppler flowmeters unsuitable for highly accurate measurements.