Reclamation News Releases News Releases from the Bureau of Reclamation Reclamation Increasing Lower American River Releases to 5,000 cfs
2016-06-30 11:19:00.0 SACRAMENTO, Calif. – The Bureau of Reclamation is increasing releases below Nimbus Dam into the lower American River from 4,000 cubic feet per second to 4,500 cfs on July 1, and then to 5,000 cfs on July 5. Nimbus Dam is located seven miles downstream of Folsom Dam and Reservoir. The increases are based on Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta water quality requirements, Delta outflow requirements and to support Central Valley Project water deliveries. <P> People recreating in or along the lower American River downstream of Folsom Dam to the confluence of the American and Sacramento rivers can expect cold and swifter than average flows for this time of year and should take appropriate safety precautions. <P> Located 26 miles northeast of Sacramento, Folsom Reservoir provides water for people, fish and wildlife, hydropower, the environment, and salinity-control requirements in the Delta. <P> Midnight Reservoir Elevation and Flows for Folsom may be found at Reclamation’s Central Valley Operations Office website at <a href=""></a>. Current American River conditions may be found at the Department of Water Resources’ California Data Exchange Center website at <a href=""></a>. <P> <P> Reclamation Holds Annual C.A.S.T. for Kids – Let’s Move Outside Event in Prineville Sunday, July 10
2016-06-30 11:14:00.0 PRINEVILLE, Ore. - The Bureau of Reclamation's Bend Field Office will hold a C.A.S.T. for Kids fishing event Sunday, July 10 at Prineville Reservoir State Park near Prineville. Children with special needs will have the opportunity to reel in a good time as they join volunteers. <P> The C.A.S.T. "Catch a Special Thrill," program provides one day fishing and boating events designed to accommodate children with a wide range of special needs. This C.A.S.T. event is also part of First Lady Michelle Obama's "<a href="">Let's Move Outside</a>" initiative. The First Lady's goal is to solve the problem of childhood obesity by encouraging healthy diets and more physical activity. <P> "Working with the kids at the C.A.S.T. event last year was a blast," said Doug DeFlitch, Bend Field Office manager in the Pacific Northwest Region. "I'm looking forward to another amazing fishing experience with them this year." <P> The children range in age from 5-18 years old and have a variety of physical and/or developmental disabilities. Each participant will receive fishing gear, a tee shirt and a hat. <P> Volunteers from the Central Oregon Bass Club and some non-member clubs will provide fishing boats and expertise to assist novice anglers. The state bass anglers' societies work under the umbrella of the Bass Anglers Sportsman Society. <P> The morning fishing event will be followed by a barbecue lunch donated by Erickson's Thriftway, The Dawg House, Grocery Outlet of Prineville, Eberhard's Dairy of Redmond, Apple Peddler Restaurant in Prineville, and hosted by the Kiwanis Club of Prineville. The Oregon State Park, Crook County Sheriff’s Office, and Search and Rescue units will be assisting with the picnic, parking, traffic control and marine patrol. <P> Other donors are Rays Food Place and Starbucks both in Prineville, Bigfoot Beverages Company in Bend/Eugene, National Fish Carvers Guild and Sportsman's Warehouse both in Bend. <P> Partners include: C.A.S.T. for Kids Foundation, Bureau of Reclamation, Oregon State Parks and Recreation Department, Central Oregon Bass Club, Kiwanis Club of Prineville, Crook County Sheriff's Office, and Crook County Sheriff Search and Rescue. <P> Participants and volunteers can register online at the C.A.S.T. for Kids Foundation website at <a href=""></a>. <P> For more information about the July 10 event or the C.A.S.T. for Kids - Let's Move Outside events Region-wide, contact Annette Ross, Regional Coordinator at (208) 378-5322 or visit <a href=""></a>. In case of rain, the event will be canceled. <P> <P> Zika Virus Information Sources
2016-06-30 08:54:00.0 With the arrival of summer, many Bureau of Reclamation employees will be working in the field and be traveling to many locations around the United States or even around the world. Working in the field presents many additional hazards when compared to working at a facility. <P> The Department of Interior recently distributed its second notification about the hazards associated with the Zika virus. The Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus that is creating worldwide concern because of its connection to a neurological birth disorder and its spread across the globe. <P> If you want more information about the Zika virus, the Department of the Interior’s Office of Emergency Management website has general Zika virus information and updates from the Centers for Disease Control on Zika in the United States. The information can be found at: <a href=""></a>. <P> This website contains information on how to protect yourself from contracting the Zika virus and also how to prevent Zika virus from spreading. I encourage you to review this information if you will be working in the field or traveling abroad for either professional or personal reasons. <P> If you have any questions please contact Theresa Gallagher, Industrial Hygienist at 303-445-3720. <P> Reclamation Resumes Negotiations for City of Fernley Water Storage Contract
2016-06-29 15:00:00.0 CARSON CITY, Nev. - The Bureau of Reclamation will resume negotiations for a water storage contract with the city of Fernley, Nevada. Under Title II of Public Law 101-618, Section 205(b)(1), Reclamation is authorized to enter into contracts for the use of space in Truckee River reservoirs. Contracts must be consistent with the terms and conditions defined in the Truckee River Operating Agreement. <P> The negotiation session will be held: <P> <p align="center"> <u>Fernley, Nevada</u> <p align="center"> Wednesday, July 13, 9:00 a.m. <p align="center"> Fernley City Hall <p align="center"> 595 Silver Lace Blvd. <P> The public is welcome to observe the negotiation session and make comments once it is completed. For further information, please contact Deb Page, Lahontan Basin Area Office, Carson City, at 775-884-8392 (TTY 800-877-8339) or <a href=""></a>. <P> <P> Reclamation Releases Final Environmental Documents for the Dos Rios Ranch Riparian Brush Rabbit Recovery Project
2016-06-29 12:46:00.0 SACRAMENTO, Calif. – The Bureau of Reclamation has prepared a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Environmental Assessment (EA) on providing $447,415 from the Central Valley Project Conservation Program to River Partners. <P> The Proposed Action would restore and enhance native habitat on 175 acres of historic riparian forest that are now degraded farmlands and remnant habitat within Dos Rios Ranch, located at the confluence of the Tuolumne and San Joaquin rivers, near Modesto, California. A 1.5 acre elevated flood refuge mound for the riparian brush rabbit would also be created. <P> Restored habitat would provide a suitable reintroduction site for riparian brush rabbit, as well as expanded habitat areas for additional federally endangered, threatened and state listed species. The Proposed Action would supplement proposed funding from the Natural Resources Conservation Service Wetland Reserve Program to restore habitat at Dos Rios Ranch. <P> The EA was available for public review from May 23, 2016, to June 6, 2016. No public comments were received. The FONSI and EA were prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act and are available at <a href=""></a>. If you encounter problems accessing the documents online, please call 916-978-5100 (TTY 800-877-8339) or email <a href=""></a>. <P> For additional information or to receive copies of the FONSI and EA, please contact Doug Kleinsmith at 916-978-5034 (TTY 800-877-8339). To view the documents at Reclamation’s Mid-Pacific Regional Office, 2800 Cottage Way, Sacramento, California, please contact Kleinsmith to schedule an appointment. <P> <P> Reclamation Announces Canyon Ferry Public Meeting
2016-06-29 00:00:00.0 BILLINGS, Mont. -- The Bureau of Reclamation is hosting a Canyon Ferry Public Meeting on July 12, 2016, to discuss information on marinas, the Shoreline Management Plan, and OHV (Off Highway Vehicles) use on Reclamation lands around Canyon Ferry Reservoir. <P> "Reclamation appreciates the opportunity to share information about Canyon Ferry resources and recreation management with the public, and to receive input on these important programs," said Montana Area Manager, Steve Davies. "The public meeting is conducted annually to allow managers to better understand the interests and needs of the public." <P> The Public Meeting will be held from 6:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. at the following location: <P> <strong>Montana Association of Counties (MACo)</strong><br> 2715 Skyway Drive<br> Helena, Montana 59602 <P> For more information please contact the Canyon Ferry Field Office at 406-475-3310 or visit Reclamation’s website at <a href=""></a>. <P> Reclamation Employees Participate in Bike To Work Day in Denver-Boulder Metro Area
2016-06-28 10:15:00.0 The annual, Denver-Boulder Metro Area Bike to Work Day event was again a success at Reclamation's Denver Office on June 22. The weather on event day was good, and participants enjoyed the benefits of fresh air, exercise and not being stuck behind the wheel of a car on their commute to work that day! <P> Participants rode a wide range distances on their commute, but the "King of Commuters" award for this year, far and away goes to Greg Eddy of the TSC's Geotechnical Services Division. Greg rode 137 miles round trip from his home in Fort Collins, to Building 67, with a total ride time of almost 9 hours! <P> Also a success. was the annual Bike to Work Day lunch time ride to Chipotle Restaurant on Union Avenue. The ride and the lunch were a great chance for participants to get to know each other and have some fun! <P> <img src="" alt="Reclamation employees participating in Bike to Work Day." width="100%"> <P> Eleven Organizations to Establish or Further Develop Cooperative Watershed Management Groups in the West
2016-06-27 15:00:00.0 WASHINGTON – Bureau of Reclamation Commissioner Estevan López announced $876,565 in funding through the WaterSMART Program for eleven projects that will establish or further develop watershed management groups. Those groups are located in Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Oregon. <P> “Reclamation supports the efforts of cooperative watershed management groups as a means to reduce conflict in the management of the West’s water and power resources,” Commissioner López said. “Collaboration is the key to improved health and resilience in these watersheds.” <P> Through WaterSMART’s Cooperative Watershed Management Program (CWMP), Reclamation provides financial assistance to locally-led watershed groups to encourage diverse stakeholders to form local solutions to water management needs. By providing this funding, Reclamation aims to promote the sustainable use of water resources and improve the condition of rivers and streams through water conservation, improved water quality and ecological resilience, and with support of collaborative conservation efforts that aim to reduce conflicts over water management. <P> Four entities will receive $303,921 to establish a cooperative watershed management group: <ul> <li>Shadowcliff, a non-profit organization, will receive $100,000 to establish the Upper Colorado River Watershed Group (Colorado)</li> <li>Upper Rio Grande Watershed District will receive $50,000 to establish a cooperative watershed management group (New Mexico)</li> <li>Chickasaw Nation will receive $53,921 to establish the Lake of the Arbuckles Watershed Group (Oklahoma)</li> <li>Walla Walla Watershed Council will receive $100,000 to establish the Walla Walla Basin Watershed Management Group (Oregon)</li> </ul> <P> Seven entities will receive $572,644 to further develop a cooperative watershed management group: <ul> <li>Clean Colorado River Sustainability Coalition will receive $80,700 for the Watershed Expansion & Management Project (Arizona)</li> <li>Tse Si Ani Chapter will receive $100,000 for Working Across Tribal Borders: Restoring the Black Mesa Watersheds Together (Arizona)</li> <li>Sierra Streams Institute will receive $99,933 for Further Development of Bear River Watershed Group (California)</li> <li>Trinity County Resource Conservation District will receive $100,000 for Trinity River Watershed Council Expansion (California)</li> <li>Beaverhead Conservation District will receive $100,000 for Further Development of the Beaverhead Watershed Committee (Montana)</li> <li>Petroleum County Conservation District will receive $61,011 for Expanding Efforts to Coordinate Watershed Planning in the Musselshell River Watershed (Montana)</li> <li>Sun River Watershed Group will receive $31,000 for Revise Work Plan to Build Long-Term Resiliency of the Sun River Watershed (Montana)</li> </ul> <P> Learn more about the WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program and see descriptions on how the selected groups will use the funding, please visit <a href=""></a>. <P> WaterSMART is the U.S. Department of the Interior’s sustainable water initiative that uses the best available science to improve water conservation and help water resource managers identify strategies to narrow the gap between supply and demand. To learn more about WaterSMART, please visit <a href=""></a>. <P> Reclamation Announces $3 Million in Agricultural Water Conservation and Efficiency Grants
2016-06-24 09:57:00.0 SACRAMENTO, Calif. – The Bureau of Reclamation announces the selection of three California water districts to receive $3 million total in Agricultural Water Conservation and Efficiency grants for Fiscal Year 2016. The grants, combined with local cost share contributions, total more than $6 million slated for water management improvement projects to be implemented during the next two years. <P> The AWCE program is a joint effort with the Natural Resources Conservation Service to promote district level water conservation improvements that facilitate on-farm water use efficiency and conservation projects. With NRCS support, Reclamation selected three projects for funding. Once Reclamation and the water districts have signed agreements and developed working plans, NRCS will work with the districts to determine eligible conservation practices and provide complementary funding and technical assistance for eligible growers. <P> The following provides details of the selected districts and projects: <P> North Kern Water Storage District, $1 million The North Kern Water Storage District Calloway Canal Lining Project will concrete line 1,600 linear feet of Calloway Canal and includes water delivery improvement components. This project is expected to save 1,135 acre-feet of water annually over the 35-year life of the project. <P> Rancho California Water District, $1 million The Agricultural Crop Conversion Program will convert high water use agricultural crops to lower water use crops among 154 acres. Crops identified for conversion include avocado and citrus for conversion to lower use crops such as grapes. This project is expected to save 396 acre-feet of water annually over the 10-year life of the project. <P> Semitropic Water Storage District, $1 million The Groundwater Well Operational Data Acquisition and Lateral Canal Lining Project includes concrete lining approximately 19,000 feet of Pond Poso Canal and installation of remote data acquisition system controls. The project is expected to save 16,630 acre-feet of water annually over the 17-year life of the project. <P> For more information on the AWCE program, please contact Anna Sutton at <a href=""></a> or 916-978-5214 (TTY 800-877-8339). <P> <P> Reminder: Building 67 Closed Tomorrow, June 25
2016-06-24 09:57:00.0 Building 67 will be closed Saturday, June 25. Power to the building will be shut down in order to allow the GSA Contractor working on the elevator project to work on some of the main electrical gear that supports the project. Questions regarding the outage can be directed to Denice Pacheco, Building 67 Manager at 303-236-2975. <P> Reclamation Releases Final Environmental Documents for the Third Hydroelectric Unit Project at Black Canyon Dam
2016-06-24 07:37:00.0 EMMETT, Idaho – The Bureau of Reclamation has prepared a Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the construction of a third hydroelectric generating unit at Black Canyon Diversion Dam on the Payette River near Emmett, Idaho. <P> In October 2011, Reclamation completed an Environmental Assessment and signed a Finding of No Significant Impact. After geological testing was conducted in 2012 and 2013, Reclamation developed a new Environmental Assessment that evaluated additional environmental information. This 2016 document supersedes the 2011 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact. <P> The Final Environmental Assessment analyzes a proposal to construct a 12.5 megawatt hydroelectric generating unit, which is expected to generate 105 million kilowatt-hours per year, enough to power about 9,500 homes. The power produced will be integrated into the power grid and serve 10 irrigation districts in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon, as well as the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes. <P> Along with the construction of a new powerplant, the Final Environmental Assessment also analyzes: <ul> <li>installation of a new penstock, intake structure, trash rake and trash racks;</li> <li>replacement and relocation of the switchyard and powerlines to address personnel and equipment safety concerns;</li> <li>replacement of the existing administration building which will be displaced by the new hydroelectric unit; and,</li> <li>control upgrades for the two existing hydroelectric units.</li> </ul> <P> Based upon the analysis of environmental impacts as described in the Final Environmental Assessment, Reclamation prepared a Finding of No Significant Impact selecting Alternative B, the Proposed Action, under which Reclamation will construct a 12.5 MW third hydroelectric generating unit at Black Canyon Diversion Dam. <P> The Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact is available for download at <a href=""></a>. Request print copies or a CD-ROM version of the report by contacting Richard Jackson at (208) 383-2285 or email <P> J. Signe Snortland Selected as Eastern Colorado Area Manager
2016-06-24 00:00:00.0 BILLINGS, Mont. -- Great Plains Regional Director Michael Ryan has announced the selection of J. Signe Snortland as Area Manager for Reclamation's Eastern Colorado Area Office (ECAO) in Loveland, Colorado. <P> "Signe has more than 20 years of experience with Reclamation issues and operations," said Ryan. "She is well-versed in critical issues ranging from environmental compliance to operations and maintenance of Reclamation facilities. She is the right person to lead this vital area of the Great Plains Region." <P> Snortland is now responsible for management of water-related land and environmental resources for the Colorado-Big Thompson and Fryingpan-Arkansas Projects. She oversees 15 dams and reservoirs and seven hydropower plants. These facilities provide 420 megawatts of power, which is enough electricity to supply 90,000 homes with annual energy needs, and water for more than 1.4 million people. <P> Snortland replaces former Area Manager Jaci Gould, who is now serving as the Deputy Regional Director for the Lower Colorado Region. Prior to the Area Manager position, Snortland served as the Deputy Area Manager for ECAO since May 2014. She has managed several complex projects, including the Arkansas Valley Conduit and Mount Elbert Pumped-Storage Plant Rehabilitation Projects for ECAO, as well as the Lower Yellowstone Intake Project Environmental Assessment for the Montana Area Office; the Red River Valley Water Supply Project Environmental Impact Statement for the Dakotas Area Office; and the Republican River Basin Study for the Nebraska-Kansas Area Office. <P> Snortland holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Anthropology from the University of North Dakota and her Master of Arts degree in Anthropology from the University of Manitoba. During her vacations, she and her husband excavate archaeological sites in Egypt with the Combined Prehistoric Expedition. <P> It’s Summer—Time to Recreate with Reclamation!
2016-06-23 14:18:00.0 June 20—the summer solstice—marks the official beginning of summer with the longest day and shortest night across the northern hemisphere. This summer, the Bureau of Reclamation’s Mid-Pacific Region invites you to visit our recreation areas, including campgrounds, day use areas, visitor centers, trail systems, wildlife viewing, and water-based facilities and opportunities. Stay safe this summer and be sure to check out what Reclamation has to offer! (more) <a href=""></a> <P> Interior, USDA Announce More Than $47 Million in Investments for Water Conservation, Energy Efficiency, Drought Response & Agriculture Operations Across the West
2016-06-23 13:00:00.0 BRIGHTON, Colo. – The U.S. Departments of Interior and Agriculture today announced more than $47 million in investments to help water districts and producers on private working lands better conserve water resources. The funds include $15 million in USDA funds and $32.6 million from the Bureau of Reclamation for local projects to improve water and energy efficiency and provide a strengthened federal response to ongoing and potential drought across 13 states in the West. <P> Reclamation Commissioner Estevan López and Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced the funding in Brighton, Colo. Reclamation funding will support 76 local projects through the Department of the Interior’s WaterSMART program. Funding from USDA’s Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) will support on-farm water delivery system improvements through the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) in association with the Interior-funded projects. López and Vilsack were joined by a local water authority and landowner who spoke about the importance of the federal funding in the cost share program. <P> “By working with communities and producers to more wisely manage the water they have, we help ensure that this and future generations will have sufficient supplies of clean water for drinking, agriculture, economic activities, recreation, and ecosystem health,” said U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack. “As drought continues across the west, our farmers and ranchers are stepping up to the plate to partner with communities and strengthen efficiency to better conserve our water supply.” <P> “Water and energy efficiency are intricately linked,” Commissioner López said. “When we conserve water, we also conserve the energy it takes to move it. One way we can achieve these efficiencies is to bring federal resources to the table for local projects that focus on saving water. This program represents one more way we’re focusing resources on projects to provide resiliency in the face of drought.” <P> Interior’s funding is made available through competitive grant programs, which are part of the WaterSMART sustainable water initiative. The grants and selection process are managed by Reclamation, which is the nation’s largest wholesale water supplier, providing one in five western farmers with irrigation water for 10 million acres of farmland and potable water to more than 31 million Americans across 17 western states. <P> Of the 76 new projects announced today, Reclamation has selected 53 projects in 11 states to receive a total of $25.6 million in WaterSMART Water and Energy Efficiency Grants which, when leveraged with local and other funding sources, will complete more than $128 million in efficiency improvements. In addition to the new grants announced today, Reclamation will provide $2.1 million to support previously selected WaterSMART projects. Together, these projects are expected to enable water savings of more than 123,000 acre-feet. More details on the program and projects announced today can be found on the WaterSMART <a href="">Water and Energy Efficiency Grants website</a>. <P> WaterSMART Water and Energy Efficiency Grants can be used for projects that conserve and use water more efficiently, increase the use of renewable energy, improve energy efficiency, benefit endangered and threatened species, carry out activities to address climate-related impacts on water, or prevent any water-related crisis or conflict. <P> Alongside the 53 Water and Energy Efficiency Grants, Reclamation also selected 23 additional cost share grants through its WaterSMART Drought Response Program totaling $4.9 million, which, when leveraged with cost-share funding, will provide a total of $23.5 million in efforts associated with the program. More detail on the program and the projects announced today can be found on the <a href="">Drought Response Program website</a>. <P> Through its EQIP program, NRCS is investing $5.2 million in on-farm assistance to complement several projects previously funded by Reclamation, and will provide an additional $10 million in 2017 to support some of the WaterSMART-funded projects announced today. NRCS complements WaterSMART investments by targeting assistance in areas where WaterSMART sponsors indicted that water delivery system improvements might facilitate future on-farm improvements. NRCS will work with producers in select WaterSMART project areas to offer financial and technical assistance for practices that increase on-farm efficiencies, such as improving irrigation systems. <P> USDA works with private landowners to implement voluntary conservation practices that conserve and clean the water we drink. USDA support—leveraged with historic outside investments—boosts producer incomes and rewards them for their good work. At the same time, USDA investments have brought high quality water and waste services to rural communities, which are vital to their continued health and economic viability. For information on USDA’s drought mitigation efforts, visit <a href="">USDA Drought Programs and Assistance</a>. To learn more about how NRCS is helping private landowners adapt to changing climate conditions including drought, visit the <a href="">NRCS’ drought resources</a>.  <P> This partnership is a priority action identified in the President’s Memorandum <a href="">Building National Capabilities for Long-Term Drought Resilience</a> and accompanying the <a href="">Federal Drought Action Plan</a>. USDA, as the permanent co-chair, is working with DOI and other members of the National Drought Resilience Partnership to better coordinate drought-related programs and policies, help communities reduce the impact of current drought events and prepare for future droughts. <P> Red-Tail Hawks Rescued at New Melones Lake
2016-06-22 13:40:00.0 On May 26, 2016, at approximately 9 p.m., Natural Resource Ranger Pat Sanders received a call from Natural Resource Specialist Sandra Patania and Park Ranger Mike McGraw regarding three very young red-tail hawks that had fallen from their nest at New Melones Lake’s Big Oak Campground, within the Glory Hole Recreation Area. <P> The Park Ranger on duty that evening, Ryan Hinojoza, stated that the three young birds had been on the ground for a couple of days, and their parents were still feeding them. As it was the Thursday before the big Memorial Day holiday, the Rangers consulted with Rose Wolf Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation ( <a href=""></a>) and decided that the baby hawks would be brought to the New Melones Lake Headquarters to safely spend the night. <P> The next morning, Park Ranger Diana Popkins took the three babies back to Big Oak Campground to place them in a tree near where they’d been found so that their parents could continue to care for them; however, the birds were unable to perch in the tree, likely due to weakness and dehydration, and it wasn’t safe to leave them on the ground. At that point, Ranger Popkins transported the babies back to the New Melones Headquarters where Nina Resnik of Rose Wolf Wildlife was called for advice. Soon volunteer Elissa Wall came to the Headquarters to pick up and transport the three young red-tailed hawks to Tri-County Wildlife Care (<a href=""></a>). <P> The same evening the three young hawks arrive at Tri-County Wildlife Care, volunteer Pat Benik notified New Melones Park Ranger staff that the birds were doing well. They were a little dehydrated and much too young to fly, so their removal from the campground had been critical to their survival. Ten days later, a follow-up on the three youngsters showed them perching and eating on their own. They will be released when they are ready to care for themselves. <P> Photos provided by Elissa Wall of Rose Wolf Wildlife, and Pat Benik of Tri-County Wildlife Care. <P> <img src="" alt="The three baby red-tail hawks" hspace="4" vspace="4"/> <P> <img src="" alt="Rescued Hawks at Tri-County Wildlife Care" hspace="4" vspace="4"/> <P> <P> <P>