In Southern California, through the Bureau of Reclamation's Water Conservation Field Services Program (WCFSP), Reclamation encourages and facilitates water conservation and efficiency improvements, and assists agencies in meeting their demands for limited water resources.
The Southern California Area Office actively promotes water conservation in the area through several funding opportunities including:
- Water Conservation Field Services Program grants - These grants assist local districts in developing plans to support and complement existing State and local agency conservation programs. FY2006 - 2014 Grants Awarded
- WaterSMART grants - Through the WaterSMART program, Reclamation provides 50/50 cost share funding to irrigation and water districts, Tribes, States and other entities with water or power delivery authority to develop projects that seek to conserve and use water more efficiently, increase the use of renewable energy, protect endangered species, or facilitate water markets. FY2010 - 2014 Grants Awarded
- CALFED grants - These water use efficiency grants fund agricultural and urban projects that focus on improving ecosystem health, water supply, reliability, or water quality of the Bay-Delta, or help reduce Southern California's reliance on Bay-Delta water. FY2007 - 2014 Grants Awarded
- American Recovery and Reinvestment Act grants - ARRA-funded water marketing and efficiency programs help increase the efficiency of existing water delivery systems across the West that can result in increased supplies for farms, cities, and the environment. FY2009 Grants Awarded
- Technical Assistance - Reclamation also offers local agencies technical assistance to promote water conservation planning, or provides textbooks and computer software to help agencies develop plans for water savings. This program's partnerships with water agencies encourage:
- development of quality water conservation plans;
- progressive outreach and educational programs;
- demonstrations of innovative conservation technologies; and
- implementation of effective efficiency measures.
Technical Reports and Resources
The following publications provide information that may be helpful for Southern California agencies and businesses in implementing water conservation practices:
- Elmer Paseo Stormwater Improvements Project (May 2015) -
Through this project, also known as the Green Alleyway Landscape Retrofit for Water Conservation project, the Council for Watershed Health successfully revitalized a paved alleyway used for stormwater conveyance by converting it to a green space with bioswales, pervious walkway, native plants, green walls, solar-powered drip irrigation, monitoring equipment, and interpretive signs. The project is now a natively-planted pocket-park in a park-poor low-income community in Los Angeles that captures dry weather and wet weather flow for infiltration to the San Fernando Groundwater Basin. High flows pass through the Paseo bioswales, but do receive treatment by green infrastructure that diminishes pollutant loading. The native plants draw local pollinators and provide respite for the neighborhood. Interpretive signage provides educational information and monitoring for the project. Tour groups from professional and government groups, as well as classes of students, are regular visitors to learn the benefits of green infrastructure retrofits for water conservation. The Elmer Paseo is engineered to capture all dry-weather flow from 7 acres of residential land, and up to 6 acre-feet of storm water during an average rainfall year.
- Industrial Process Expansion (March 2015) -
The Municipal Water District of Orange County (MWDOC) developed a program to help industrial businesses reduce their water use and associated wastewater flows. The Industrial Process Water Use Reduction Program provides businesses in the Food Processing, Textile Manufacturing, Metal Plating, and Electronics Manufacturing industries (sectors with the largest potential for water savings) with engineering surveys to identify water saving process improvements and offers financial incentives to help implement recommended changes. Survey participants received customized Survey Reports that summarized recommended retrofits and changes to operating practices that will result in significant water savings. Estimated costs, savings and payback information were also included, along with "next steps" on how to implement the recommended improvements. Incentive payments from The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and MWDOC were offered to companies successfully implementing long-term process improvements. The Industrial Process Expansion project continued the efforts of this program to include three additional comprehensive surveys, five additional MWDOC incentives, and engineering assistance to implement process changes for two companies. The overall water savings project goal was 377 acre feet of water per year.
- Industrial Process Expansion (March 2015) - The OC Smart Irrigation Timer Rebate Program was developed by the Municipal Water District of Orange County (MWDOC) to offer residential and commercial sites rebate incentives to encourage irrigation controller device retrofits. Weather-based irrigation controllers (commonly referred to as Smart Timers) were targeted for this program because of their significant potential for water savings. To implement this project, MWDOC employed a rebate-format implementation process that included marketing/promotion; participation guidelines and procedures to add this project into the regional rebate administrator process; development of customer service protocols; project data compiling; device installation verification; a water savings evaluation; quarterly and final reporting; and quality control procedures. MWDOC's goals were to install 475 residential timers and 800 commercial timers, with an overall project water savings goal of 560 acre-feet of water per year over a 10-year term. From project launch in September 2011 through the end of September 2014, a total of 2,072 residential timers and 1,803 commercial timers were installed, yielding a potential water savings of 783 acre-feet of water per year. The implementation rates far exceeded the project goals by 436% for residential timers and 225% for commercial timers. Over the same time period, 400 residential and 100 commercial post-installation inspections were performed, exceeding the goals by 540% and 217% respectively. Based on the results of an associated impact evaluation, the water savings under this program is estimated at 59 gallons per day per residential site and 320 gallons per day per commercial site, or 783 acre-feet per year of overall savings.
- Residential Irrigation Efficiency Implementation Program and Enhanced Agricultural Irrigation Efficiency Program (December 2014) - The Rancho California Water District conducted two programs within the City of Temecula, and in portions of the City of Murrieta and southwest Riverside County. The Residential program was designed to encourage 500 high water users to participate in a cost-effective program to reduce their water consumption. Despite limited participation (possibly due to the launch of the program during low water use months), those who participated in the program benefited from the onsite irrigation audits that allowed them to identify potential irrigation upgrades, which included upgrading of the irrigation controller to a Smart Weather Based unit, realignment of irrigation spray heads, and the replacement of more efficient nozzles. The Agricultural program expanded the assistance provided to local farmers through an existing ag efficiency program by installing weather stations and soil moisture sensors at avocado farms in the District's service area, providing the farmers with more data to help make more informed irrigation scheduling decisions..
- California Sprinkler Adjustment Notification System (December 2014) - The Municipal Water District of Orange County developed the California Sprinkler Adjustment Notification System (CSANS) allows property owners to turn their 'dumb' irrigation timers into smart timers at no cost. A system widget alllows customers to register to receive regular e-mails from their water provider containing the updated irrigation factor specific to the weather at their geographic locations. The factor is used to make global irrigation scheduling adjustments on irrigation timers that have a percent adjustment feature. In addition to the irrigation adjustment factor, water agencies can customize these emails to include agency-specific information, such as seasonally appropriate gardening suggestions, rebate program information, water supply updates, etc.
- West Basin Metropolitan Water District Water Efficient Equipment Installation Program (September 2014) - West Basin's Commercial, Industrial, Institutional (CII) Incentive Program implemented water efficiency measures within the CII sector, targeting businesses and institutions in the District's service area that have facilities with cooling towers or those industries using water for manufacturing of products and/or services (i.e., oil refining, mining and metal plating, processing/dying/laundering of textiles, food and beverage production). West Basin provided technical assistance to identify solutions to use water more efficiently. The project aims to conserve water and energy by retrofitting existing CII sites with more water and energy efficient equipmen to help West Basin’s water retailers meet the goals and objectives of the California Urban Water Conservation Council’s CII Best Management Practices.
- City of Corona Department of Water & Power Water Use Efficiency Master Plan Final Project Report (September 2014) - The City of Corona developed this Water Use Efficiency Master Plan to identify the largest water consumers in the City and create strategies to improve their efficiency. It identifies cost-effective and innovative capital improvement projects that would help conserve water including increasing reclaimed water use and groundwater recharge, and updating inefficient and outdated infrastructure. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to pave the way to identify and prioritize water conservation projects that, when implemented in full, would help the City achieve their 20% by 2020 State mandated target. This document will be used as a planning tool and illustrates that water conservation efforts by the City are a feasible and cost-effective means of assuring adequate future water supplies.
- The Influence of Conservation Pricing and Other Non-price Factors on Residential Water Demand (May 2014) - Water conservation, including conservation pricing, is a demand side approach to water management that can help avoid the costs associated with water supply expansion or can be implemented in areas that do not have a financially viable supply side option. This report evaluates the effectiveness of conservation pricing, specifically the use of an increasing block rate pricing structure, in reducing municipal and industrial water demand. Different types of increasing block rate structures would be expected to have varying levels of effectiveness in reducing water demand. This research evaluates the influence of various marginal water prices on the quantity of water demanded and the most appropriate rate structure for meeting water conservation goals.
- City of Anaheim Water Use Efficiency Master Planning Grant Report (April 2014) - Anaheim's Water Use Efficiency Master Plan builds upon existing water conservation program achievements to help reach the City's goal of a 20 percent reduction in urban per capita water use by 2020. The Master Plan identifies potential conservation program concepts for specific customer sectors (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial and landscape-irrigation) and recommends a viable program mix with several implementation options focusing on landscape
efficiency and innovative water use efficiency projects. The estimated water savings is projected to be 23 gallons/capita/day once the Master Plan is implemented.
- Perris Water Filtration Plant Reject Recovery Project (April 2014) - The Perris Water Filtration Plant routinely discharges a reject flow of 1.0 mgd at capacity. This reject flow is discharged to the sewer and processed at EMWD Perris Valley Regional Water Reclamation Facility. The new Reject Recovery Facility diverts the reject stream from the sewer and treats the flow using low pressure membrane filtration. At capacity, approximately 0.85 mgd is returned to the Filtration Plant and 0.15 mgd is discharged to the sewer, resulting in a decrease in imported raw water and reduced flows to the wastewater treatment plant. This also results in substantial operations, maintenance, and energy savings.
- Conservation Market Study Final Project Report (March 2014) - Under this project, The Metropolitan Water District of Southern Californiaís water conservation programs were reviewed. The Large Landscape Saturation Survey collected Geographic Information System (GIS) data on the location of past conservation programs, large landscapes, and recycled water systems. Results from the saturation survey will be used to guide future conservation programs at Metropolitan. The second project is a Multiple Strategy Document that reviews conservation strategies utilized within Metropolitanís service area. (Both documents are included as appendices to this report.)
- Landscape Water Use Efficiency Research Project (October 2013) - Under this project, The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California conducted water savings analysis for smart controllers that have been installed for more than four years using regional data, and identified water savings opportunities by surveying conditions for landscape water use behaviors and use of irrigation devices within Metropolitanís service area.
- California Friendly Turf Replacement Incentive Program (September 2013) - This project transformed more than 2 million square-feet of irrigated turf to California Friendly landscapes with climate-appropriate plants, efficient irrigation, permeable surfaces to allow rainwater infiltration, and mulch to preserve soil moisture. These lands have included residential and commercial projects throughout The Metropolitan's Water District of Southern California's 5,200 square-mile service area. The program provided 5,796 acre-feet in lifetime water savings, increased acceptance of non-turf lawns, and began a market transformation.
- Distribution Water System Audit and Component Analysis (September 2013) - This study examines the efficiency of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's water distribution system, evaluating real and apparent losses. The project is expected to save up to 12,600 acre-feet per year.
- Mesa Water District Water Use Efficiency Benchmarking Study and Plan Final Project Report (January 2014), Water Use Efficiency Plan (October 2013), and Analysis of Water Use Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarking (March 2013) - The Mesa Water District serves over 110,000 customers throughout Costa Mesa, Newport Beach and unincorporated parts of Orange County. The Water Use Efficiency (WUE) Plan recommends a portfolio of WUE programs that can feasibly be implemented with a water cost of $198 per acre-foot. The Benchmark Analysis proposes up to three alternative measures to help benchmark performance in the future.
- Water Efficient Guidelines for New Development (July 2013) - This offers a set of voluntary guidelines for new development in the Eastern
Municipal Water District service area that, if implemented, will reduce overall water use in new
buildings beyond what is currently required by state and local codes and requirements. The focus of the
guidebook is on incentive-driven, cost-effective, voluntary water efficiency measures for new residential
- Orange County Water Use Efficiency Master Plan (June 2013) - This plan was developed by the Municipal Water District of Orange County in coordination with its member agencies to help reach mandated water use reductions by 2020. It creates a strategy to meet specific reduction targets and offers customized tools to track performance and adapt to changing circumstances.
- High Efficiency Clothes Washer Direct Install Program Final Project Report (June 2013) - This program reduced demand for imported water by retrofitting pre-2004 clothes washers with high efficiency clothes washers (HECW). Eastern Municipal Water District, in partnership with the Southern California Gas Company, successfully retrofitted 1,700 washers that use an average of 42 gallons or
more per 3-cubic-foot load of clothes with HECWs that use a maximum of 12 gallons for the same size load. With an
estimated lifespan of 14 years, the total water savings for the program is 809 acre-feet.
- West Basin Municipal Water District Complete Restroom Retrofit Final Report (June 2013) - Demonstrates the water savings gained from installing more than 1,000 high efficiency fixtures in commercial, industrial and institutional facilities throughout the West Basin service area.
- Upper San Gabriel Valley Municipal Water District Water Use Efficiency Master Plan (July 2012) - Creates a strategy to meet water demand reduction targets and delivers customized tools required to track performance and to adapt to changing circumstances.
- West Basin Municipal Water District Water Efficiency Master Plan - 2011-2015 and 2015 Master Plan Highlights (2011) - Provides information on water efficiency accomplishments between 2005-2010 and shows how West Basin plans to build on those successes.
- Analysis of Selected Potential Water Conservation Technologies and Equipment (October 2011) - Analyzes selected technologies for improved long-term irrigation efficiencies.
- Public School Retrofit Program, Riverside County, Final Report (December 2011) - Describes the very successful results of a program that was launched to save water in local public schools through the installation of water-efficient devices.
- Apple Valley Ranchos Water Company Water Conservation Technical Assistance White Paper (December 2010) - Describes techniques used by Reclamation to provide technical expertise for water conservation efforts by the Apple Valley Ranchos Water Company, a member of the Mojave Water Agency, to help reduce overall water consumption within the city.
- Municipal Water District of Orange County Water Loss Management Program Assessment (December 2010) - Provides the results of a study conducted between 2008 and 2010 to research accountable management of water supplies, performed through water utility supply and demand auditing and the implementation of appropriate and cost-effective water loss control techniques.
- California Friendly Landscape Pilot Rebate Program for New Homes and Groundwater Infiltration Using Porous Concrete Pilot Rebate Program (Sept 2010) - Provides the results of a program that ended on June 30, 2010 with ten builders and 226 homes participating. The target for California Friendly landscaping was exceeded with over 392,000 square feet of water efficient landscaping installed.
Water and Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Customer Classes in SoCal (April 2009) - Provides the results of a 2007 study among energy utilities, water districts, wastewater sanitation districts, and state and local agencies to research the potential for integrated water and energy efficiency programs.
- Urban Drought Guidebook (2008) - Offers information and examples of successful efforts to conserve water resources by suppliers throughout California, and is intended to assist water managers facing the challenge of water shortages by employing tried-and-true methods of the past as well as making use of new tools and methods now available.
Coordinating Government Programs and Policies to Advance Water Use Efficiency in California (Dec 2006) - Identifies the many government programs that are available in Calfornia aimed at improving water resource efficiency.
- Additional publications can be found on Reclamation's water conservation website.
Need More Information?
If you have any water resources questions, need technical assistance, or want to learn more about water conservation in Southern California, contact Deb Whitney, Water Conservation Specialist, at email@example.com or by phone at: (951) 695-5310.